Beginning of Artificial Intelligence

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What is Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is a technique in which a programming computer is designed in such a way that it can solve problems like humans. He can think and give solutions like humans.

Background History

Turing machine

Alan Mathison Turing, a British logician and computer pioneer, produced some of the earliest and most significant work in the field of artificial intelligence in the mid-20th century. He described an abstract computing machine in 1935 that had a limitless memory and an infinitely repeating scanning device. It reads what it finds and writes new symbols back and forth. An instruction set stores in the scanner’s memory in the form of symbols that control its actions. Here, we have Turing’s stored-program concept, which implies that the machine can operate on its own programmer and, in this way, modify or improve it. The universal Turing machine is the name given to Turing’s concept. A universal Turing machine underlies every modern computer.

Stored-program electronic computing machine

Turing was a leading cryptanalyst at Bletchley Park’s Government Code and Cypher School in England during World War II. After the end of World War II, Turing was unable to begin work on a stored-program electronic computing machine. Despite this, he spent a lot of time thinking about machine intelligence during the war. Computers can learn from their past experiences and solve new problems through the use of heuristics—a process known as heuristic problem solving by Turing’s former colleagues at Bletchley Park, Donald Michie (who later established the Department of Machine Intelligence and Perception at the University of Edinburgh).

Intelligent Machinery

A machine that can learn from experience is what we want, and the “possibility of letting the machine alter its own instructions provides the mechanism for this,” as Turing said in a 1947 public lecture in London. ‘Intelligent Machinery,’ a report he wrote in 1948, introduced many of the key concepts of AI. Though he never published it, Turing’s ideas have since been reworked by others. As an example, in the section on Connectionism, Turing explains how he first came up with the concept of teaching a network of artificial neurons to perform specific tasks.

Chess

At Bletchley Park, Turing used chess as an example of how machine intelligence could be tested against a variety of challenging and clearly defined problems. It is theoretically possible for chess-playing computers to search through all possible moves exhaustively. But in practice, this is impossible due to the enormous number of moves involved. Heuristics are essential for narrowing the scope of a more focused search. In the absence of a computer that could run his chess programme, Turing had to be content with theory. He tried his hand at designing chess programmes. AI programmes had to wait for digital computers with stored programmes before they could be developed.

Just over half a century after Turing’s prediction that computers would one day be able to play very good chess. IBM’s Deep Blue defeated the reigning world champion, Garry Kasparov, in a six-game match in 1997. While Turing’s prediction was correct, his expectation that chess programming would help us understand human thought was not. Deep Blue’s 256 parallel processors enabled it to examine 200 million possible moves per second and to look ahead as many as 14 turns of play. This improvement in computer chess since Turing’s day is due to advances in computer engineering rather than advances in AI. Numerous people agree with Noam Chomsky, an expert on language at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Who said that it’s as exciting as an Olympic bulldozer lifting heavyweight beating a chess grandmaster. Read More

The Turing test

In 1950, Turing introduced a practical test for computer intelligence, now known simply as the Turing test, bypassing the traditional debate over the definition of intelligence. A computer, a human interrogator, and a human foil take part in the Turing test. The interrogator tries to figure out which of the other two participants is the computer by asking them questions. The keyboard and display screen are the only means of communication. While the interrogator can ask any and all questions, the computer is free to use every tactic at its disposal in order to compel an incorrect identification.

Are you a computer

The computer might say “No” when asked, “Are you a computer?” or it might give an incorrect answer after a long pause when asked to multiply two large numbers. It is imperative that the foil aid the interrogator incorrectly identifying the subject. Interrogators and foil play by a variety of people, and Turing test proponents claim.  The computer consider as intelligent. If an overwhelming majority of the interrogators are unable to tell it apart from a human being.

 

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